Ncert Science Class 10 Solutions Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds
Welcome to NCTB Solutions. Here with this post we are going to help 10th class students for the Solutions of NCERT Class 10 Science Book Chapter 4, Carbon and its Compounds. Here students can easily find step by step solutions of all the questions in Carbon and its Compounds. Also our Expert Science Teacher’s solved all the problems with easily understandable language with proper guidance so that all the students can understand easily. Here in this post students will get chapter 4 solutions. Here all Question Answer are based on NCERT latest syllabus.
Carbon and its Compounds Exercise question Solutions :
(1) Ethane, with the molecular formula C2H6 has
The correct option is – (b)
7 covalent bonds.
Because Ethane (C2H6) has two carbon atom connected with single covalent bond and six carbon atom connected with single covalent bond. So, the total seven covalent bonds.
(2) Butanone is a four-carbon compound with the functional group.
The correct option – (c)
Because Butanone is four carbon compound with the functional group of ketone.
(3) While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that
The correct option is – (b)
The fuel is not burning completely
Vessel is getting blackened because of unburned carbon particle, which means the fuel is not burning completely.
(4) Explain the nature of the covalent bond using the bond formation in CH3Cl
The carbon has four electron in its outermost orbit, means it has valency of four electron. Which cannot be possible by gaining or losing four electron as it require lots of energy.so to complete outermost orbit it shares electron with another elements it’s called covalent bond.
In CH3Cl, carbon has four valence electron which bonds with three hydrogen electron and one chlorine electron.
(6) What is an homologous series? Explain with an example.
- Homologous series :
We have seen the carbon chains can be replaced also, the hydrogen atom can be replaced to form some functional group.
Such a series of compounds in which the same functional group is present is called as homologues series. Ex Ethene has formulae C2H6.
Similarly when succeeding members has formula. C3H6 , C4H6, C5H10 ….
This shows that the general formulae for alkenes is CnH2n. this type of series is homologues series.
The chemical property remains some of series due to functional group, but physical properties change due to change in molecular weight.
(7) How can ethanol and ethanoic acid be differentiated on the basis of their physical and chemical properties.
Differentiated between ethanol and ethanoic acid basis of their physical and chemical properties:
- Ethanol :
(a) Ethanol is liquid at room temperature.
(b) Ethanol has good smell.
(c) Ethanol don’t change colour of litmus.
(d) Ethanol does not react with NaOH and gives sodium ethanoate and water.
CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONA + H2O
Ethanol sodium hydroxide sodium ethanoate water
- Ethanoic acid :
(a) Ethanoic acid freezes below 17 °C.
(b) It smell like vinegar.
(c) Acid turns blue litmus to red.
(d) It reacts with metal carbonates to form salt, water and carbon dioxide.
CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O
(8) Why does micelle formation take place when soap is added to water? Will a micelle be formed in other solvents such as ethanol also?
Soap molecules have two different end and both end have different properties. one is hydrophilic (head) which interacts with water, while the other end is hydrophobic which interacts with hydrocarbon (tail).
Tail starts ‘protruding out of water’. Inside water, these molecules have unique orientation that keeps the hydrocarbon portion out of water. Thus cluster of molecules in which the hydrophobic tails are in the interior of cluster and the ionic ends are on the surface of the cluster this formation is called a micelle.
(9) Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?
Carbon and its compound have maximum number of hydrogen and carbon. They release a large amount of heat and light on burning. Its easily available by environment as wood, and combustion of all carbon and its compound can be easily controlled.
(10) Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.
The formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap:
insoluble substance (scum) is formed by the reaction of soap with the calcium and magnesium salts, which cause the hardness of water.
(11) What change will you observe if you test soap with litmus paper (red and blue)?
The formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap
Insoluble substance (scum) is formed by the reaction of soap with the calcium and magnesium salts, which cause the hardness of water.
(12) What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?
- Hydrogenation :
Unsaturated hydrocarbon adds hydrogen in the presence of catalyst such as palladium or nickel to give saturated hydrocarbons called as hydrogenation.
- Industrial application :
This reaction is commonly used in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils using nickel catalyst.
(13) Which of the following hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions? C2H6, C3H8, C3H6, C2H2 and CH4
Unsaturated hydrocarbons add hydrogen in the presence of catalysts such as palladium or nickel to give saturated hydrocarbons. from the above unsaturated hydrocarbons C2H6, C2H2 are the unsaturated hydrocarbon which will undergo addition reaction.
(14) Give a test that can be used to differentiate between saturated and unsaturated Hydrocarbons.
Bromine water testes used to identify saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon.
In bromine test orange colour solution of bromine water is used. When alkenes or alkyne is shaken within solution it changes to colorless. But when shaken with alkanes it does not change original colour.
(15) Explain the mechanism of the cleaning action of soaps
The mechanism of the cleaning action of soaps :
Most dirt is oily in nature and as you know, oil does not dissolve in water. The molecules of soap are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain carboxylic acids. The ionic-end of soap interacts with water while the carbon chain interacts with oil. The soap molecules thus form structures called micelles where one end of the molecules is towards the oil droplet while the ionic-end faces outside. This forms an emulsion in water. The soap micelle thus helps in pulling out the dirt in water and we can wash our clothes clean.
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