# Rd Sharma Solutions Class 8 Chapter 13 Profit Loss Discount and Value Added Tax (Vat)

Welcome to NCTB Solution. Here with this post we are going to help 8th Class students for the Solutions of RD Sharma Class 8 Mathematics, Chapter 13, Profit Loss Discount and Value Added Tax (Vat). Here students can easily find Exercise wise solution for chapter 13, Profit Loss Discount and Value Added Tax (Vat). Students will find proper solutions for Exercise 13.1, 13.2 and 13.3 Our teacher’s solved every problem with easily understandable methods so that every students can understand easily.

Profit Loss Discount and Value Added Tax (Vat) Exercise 13.1 Solution :

Question no – (1)

Solution :

1st, Gain,

= 100 – 90

= 10

Now, Gain percent (%),

= 100 × 10/90

= 100/9

= 11 1/9 %

Therefore, his gain will be 10 Rs and gain percent will be 11 1/9%.

Question no – (2)

Solution :

Given, Cost Price = 1240 Rs.

And, Selling Price = 1147 Rs.

1st, we find his Loss,

= 1240 – 1147

= 93 Rs

Now, His loss percent (%),

= 93/1240 × 100

= 15/2

= 7 1/2%

Hence, his loss will be 93 Rs and loss percent will be 7 1/2%.

Question no – (3)

Solution :

Given, Cost Price of 9 apples = 9.60

Cost Price of 1 apples

= 9.60/9

= 1.06

CP of 11 apples

= 1.06 × 11

= 11.66

Selling Price of 11 apples = 12.00

Gain = Selling Price – Cost Price

= 12.00 – 11

= 11.66

Gain Percent (%)

= 0.34 × 100/11.66

= 2.91%

Question no – (4)

Solution :

Cost Price of 1 articles = x

Cost Price of 10 articles = 10x = SP of 9 articles

CP of 9 articles = 9x

Profit = Selling Price – Cost Price

= 10x – 9x

= x

Profit percent (%)

= x/9x × 100

= 100/9

= 11 1/9%

Therefore, the profit percent will be 11 1/9%

Question no – (5)

Solution :

Cost Price of radio = 225

Expenses,

= 225 + 15

= 240 Rs

Selling Price of radio = 300

Profit,

= 300 – 240

= 60 Rs

Profit percent (%),

= 60/240 × 100

= 25%

Therefore, his profit percent will be 25%

Question no – (6)

Solution :

Cost Price of cooler = 1200

Expenses,

= 1200 + 40

= 1240

Selling Price of cooler = 1550

Profit,

= 1550 – 1240

= 310

Profit percent (%),

= 310 × 100/1240

= 25%

Therefore, his profit percent will be 25%.

Question no – (7)

Solution :

Cost Price of wristwatch = 225

Spend for repair,

= 225 + 15

= 240

Selling Price of wristwatch = 300

Profit

= 300 – 240

= 60

Profit%

= 60 × 100/240

= 25%

Therefore, His profit percent will be 25%.

Question no – (8)

Solution :

Cost Price of 2 box = 1300

Let, Cost Price of box = x

Cost Price of Box₂ = (1300 – x)

For, Box₁

Loss = 20%

Selling Price of Box₂ = 120x/100

For, Box₂

Loss = 12%

Selling Price of Box₂ (1300 – x) × 88/100

According to question,

120x/100 = (1300 – x) × 88/100

or, 120x = 88(1300 – x)

or, 120x/88 = (1300 – x)

or, 15x + 11x = 14300

or, 26x = 1300 × 11

or, x = 1300 × 11/26 = 550

Cost Price of Box₁ = 550

Cost Price of Box₂ = 1300 – 550

= 750 Rs.

Therefore, the cost price of the each box will be 550 Rs and 750 Rs.

Question no – (10)

Solution :

Let, CP of 1 chairs = x

Cost Price of 18 chairs = 18x – Selling Price of 16 chairs

Cost Price of 16 chairs = 16x

Gain = SP – CP = 18x – 16x

Gain% = 2x/18x × 100

= 100/9

= 11 1/9%

Therefore, the gain percent will be 11 1/9%

Question no – (11)

Solution :

Let Cost Price of 1 oranges = x

Cost Price of 16 oranges = 16x – Selling Price of 18 oranges

Cost Price of 18 oranges = 18x

Loss = 18x – 16x = 2x

Loss% = 2x/18x × 100

= 11 1/9%

Therefore, the loss percent will be 11 1/9%

Question no – (12)

Solution :

Let, the CP of motorcycle = x

The SP of motorcycle = 72x/100

With expense CP from Vineet

= 72x/100 + 1680

= 0.72x + 1680

Profit for this selling = 12.5%

SP from Vineet to Rahul

= (0.72x + 1680) × 112.5/100

According to question,

(0.72x + 1680) × 112.5/100 = 35910

or, (0.72x × 112.5) + 189000 = 3591000

or, 0.72x × 112.5 = 3591000 – 189000 = 3402000

or, x = 3402000/0.72 × 112.5

= 3402000/81

= 42000

Therefore, the cost price of the motor cycle for Ravish is 42000.

Question no – (13)

Solution :

Selling Price of book = 258

gain = 20%

Cost Price of book,

= 258 × 100/120

= 215

When, gain 30%

Selling Price of book,

= 215 × 130/100

= 279.5 Rs.

Therefore, he should sell the book for 279.5 Rs.

Question no – (14)

Solution :

Cost Price of briefcase = 800

reduce price = 5%

New price,

= 800 × 95/100

= 760 Rs.

Now, Loss = 8%

Selling Price

= 760 × 92/100

= 699.20 Rs.

Therefore, the selling price of the briefcase will be 699.20 Rs.

Question no – (15)

Solution :

Selling Price of 90 ball pen = 160

Selling Price of 1 ball pen = 16/90 = 16/9

Loss = 20%

CP of 1 ball pen = 16/9 × 100/80

= 16/9 × 100 × 1/80

= 20/9

Again gain = 20%

Selling Price of 1 ball pen,

= 20/9 × 120 /100

= 20/9 × 120 × 1/100

= 24/9

= 8/3

Number of ball pen in 8/3 = 1

Number of of ball pen in 96

= 96/(8/3)

= 96 × 3/8

= 36

Therefore, 36 ball pen should sell in 96 Rs.

Question no – (16)

Solution :

Let, CP of article = x

Profit = 25%

SP of article = 125x/100 = 5x/4

If less 20% of CP,

CP₁ = x – 20x/100 = 100x – 20x/100

= 80x/100 = 4x/5

SP₁ = 5x – 36.75

Profit% = SP₁ – CP₁

= 5x/4 – 36.75 – 4x/5

= 5x/4 – 4x/5 – 36.75

= 9x/20 – 36.75

Profit% = (9x/20 – 36.75) × 100/4x/5

According to question,

(9x/20 – 36.75)/4x/5 = 30/100

or, (9x/20 – 36.75) = 30/100 × 4x/5 = 6x/25

or, 45x – 24x/100 = 3675/100

or, 21x = 3675

or, x = 3675/21

= 175

Question no – (17)

Solution :

We know, 1 kg = 1000 gm

He gain = (100 – 950) = 50 gm

He sells 950 gm pulses getting a gain of = 50 gm

He sells 950 gm pulses getting a gain of = 50/950 × 100

= 100/19

= 5 5/15%

Therefore, his gain percent is 5 5/15%.

Question no – (18)

Solution :

Let, CP of table₁ = x

CP of table₂ = 3120 – x

SP of table₁ = 85x/100

SP of table₂ = (3120 – x) × 136/100

According to question,

85x/10 = 93120 – x) × 136/100

or, 58x = 424320 = 136x

or, 136x + 85x = 424320

= 221x = 424320

= x = 424320/221

= 1920

CP of table₁ = 1920

CP of table₂ = (3120 – 1920)

= 1200 Rs.

Therefore, the cost price of each table will be Rs 1920 and Rs 1200.

Question no – (19)

Solution :

Let, Cost Price of fan₁ = x

Cost Price of fan₂ = (3605 – 5)

Selling Price of fan₁ = 115x/100

Selling Price of fan₂ = (3605 – x) × 91/100

According to question,

115x/100 = 91 (3605 – x)/100

or, 115x = 328055

or, 206x = 328055

or, x = 328055/206

= 1592.50

Cost Price of fan₁ = 1592.50

Cost Price of fan₂ = (3605 – 1592.50)

= 2012.50 Rs.

Therefore, the cost price of each fan will be Rs 1592.50 and 2012.50 Rs.

Question no – (20)

Solution :

Cost Price of toffee = 10

Cost Price of 1 toffee = 10/11

Again, Cost Price of 9 toffee = 10

x of 1 toffee = 10/9

Total Cost Price of (1 + 1) = 2 toffee

= (10/11 + 10/9)

= 90 + 110/99

= 200/99

Total Cost Price of 1 toffee

= 200/99 × 2

= 100/99

when SP of 1 toffee = 1

Loss = 100/99 – 1

= 100 – 99/99

= 1/99

Loss% = (1/99)/(100/99) × 100

= (1 × 99)/(99 × 100) × 100

= 1%

Question no – (21)

Solution :

Let, Cost Price of tricycle = x

Profit = 16%

Selling Price₁ of tricycle = 116x/100

Again profit = 20%

Selling Price₂ of tricycle = 120x/100

According to question –

120x/100 = 116/100 + 100

or, 120x/100 = 116x/1000/100

or, 120x = 116x + 10000

or, 120x – 116x = 10000

or, 4x = 10000

or, x = 1000/4 = 2500

Therefore, the C.P of the tricycle is 2500.

Question no – (23)

Solution :

Let Cost Price of T shirt = x

Profit = 4%

Selling Price₁ of T shirt = 104x/100

Again profit = 5%

Selling Price₂ of T shirt = 105x/100

According to question,

105x/100 – 104x/100 = 6

or, 105x- 104/100 = 6

or, x = 6 × 100 = 600

(i) Cost Price of T shirt = 600

(ii) Selling Price = 105 × 600/10 = 630 Rs.

Selling Price₁ = 104 × 600/100 = 624 Rs.

Question no – (24)

Solution :

Cost Price of 100 hens = 8000

Cost Price of 1 hens = 8000/100 = 80

Cost Price of 20 hens = 80 × 20 = 1600

Let, Selling Price of 20 hens = x

According to question,

x – 1600/1000 = 5/100

or, x – 1600 = 80

or, x = 1600 + 80 = 1680

Gain on 20 hens = (1680 – 1600) = 80

New Cost Price of 80 hens = 8 × 80 = 6400

Let, Selling Price of 80 hens = y

gain on 80 hens = (Selling Price – Cost Price) of 80 hens

gain on 100 hens = gain on 80 hens + gain an 20 hens

= (Selling Price of 80 hens – 6400) + 80

= (y – 6400) + 80

= Y – 6320

According to question,

y – 6320/800 = 20/100

or, y – 6320 = 1600

or, y = 1600 + 6320 = 7920

Gain of 80 hens = Selling Price – Cost Price

= 7920 – 6400

= 1520

Gain% = 1520/6400 × 100

= 23.75%

Profit Loss Discount and Value Added Tax (Vat) Exercise 13.2 Solution :

Question no – (1)

Solution :

(i) M.P = Rs 1300 and

Discount = 10%

Selling Price

= 1300 × 90/100

= 1170

Hence, the Selling Price is Rs 1170.

(ii) Market Price = Rs 500

And discount = 15%

Market Price = 500

Discount = 15%

Selling Price,

= 500 × 85/100

= 425 Rs.

Question no – (2)

Solution :

(i) Selling Price = Rs 1222

and discount = 6%

S.P = 1222

Discount = 6%

Market Price

= 1222 × 100/94

= 1300 Rs.

(ii) Market Price = Rs 495 and discount = 1%

Selling Price = 495

discount = 1%

Market Price,

= 495 × 100/99

= 500 Rs.

Question no – (3)

Solution :

(i) Market Price = Rs 900

and SP = Rs 873

Market Price = 900

Selling Price = 873

Discount = MP – SP

= 90 – 873

= 27

Discount percent (%)

= 27 × 100/900

= 3%

(ii) Market Price = 500

Selling Price = 425

Discount,

= 500 – 425

= 75

Discount percent (%)

= 75 × 100/50

= 25%

Question no – (4)

Solution :

According to the given question,

Market Price = 650

Discount = 3%

Selling Price,

= 650 × 97/100

= 630.50

Therefore, customer pay for swing machine is Rs 630.50

Question no – (5)

Solution :

As per the given question,

Market Price= 720

Selling Price = 684

Discount,

= 720 – 684

= 36

Discount Percent (%)

= 100 × 36/720

= 5%

Question no – (6)

Solution :

According to question,

Selling Price = 720

Discount = 20%

MP = 720 × 100/80

= 900

Thus, the marked price of the saree is 900 Rs.

Question no – (7)

Solution :

As per the given question,

Selling Price = 555

Discount = 7 1/2% = 15/2

Market Price = 555 × 100 /185/2

= 555 × 100 × 2 /185

= 600

Therefore, the marked price of the article is Rs. 600

Question no – (8)

Solution :

As per the question,

Market Price = 250

Discount = 10%

Selling Price

= 250 × 90/100

= 225 Rs

Profit = 25%

Cost Price

= 225 × 100/125

= 180 Rs

Therefore, the actual cost of article is Rs. 180.

Question no – (9)

Solution :

According to question,

Market Price = 500

Discount = 20%

Selling Price,

= 500 × 80 /100

= 400 Rs

Profit = 25%

Cost Price

= 400 × 100/125

= 320 Rs

Therefore, the actual cost of article is Rs 320.

Question no – (10)

Solution :

Cost Price = 170

Profit = 20%

Selling Price

= 170 × 120/100

= 204

Discount = 15%

Market Price

= 204 × 100/85

= 240

Hence, the marked price of article is Rs. 240

Question no – (11)

Solution :

Let Cost Price = x

Profit = 50%

Selling Price = 150x/100 = 3x/2

Again, Let Market Price = y

Discount = 25%

Selling Price = 75y/100 = 3y/4

According to question,

3x/2 = 3y/4

= x/y = 1/2

x : y = 1 : 2

Hence, the ratio of the Cost Price to the Market Price is 1 : 2.

Question no – (12)

Solution :

Let the advertised price = x

Commission = 23% = 23x/100

After commission Selling Price of Item,

= x – 23x/100

= 100x – 23x/100

= 77x/100

New profit = 10%

Cost Price = 77x/100 ×10/100

= 77x × 100/ 100 × 100

= 7x/10

According to question,

Selling Price – CP = gain

77x/100 – 7x/10 = 56

or, 77x – 70x/100 = 56

or, 7x = 56 × 100

or, x = 56 × 100/7 = 800

Therefore, his advertised price is Rs. 800

Question no – (13)

Solution :

Let, Cost Price = x

Mark at = 40% above on Cost Price

Market Price = 140x/150 = 7x/5

Now discount% = 5%

Discount value = 7x/5 × 5 /10

= 7x × 5/5 × 100

= 7x/100

Given Selling Price = 1064

According to question,

7x/5 – 7x/100 = 1064

or, 140x – 7x/100 = 1064

or, 133x = 1064 × 100

or, x = 1064 × 100 /133 = 800

Cost Price = 800

Selling Price = 1064

Profit = 1064 – 800

= 264

Question no – (14)

Solution :

Given, profit% = 16%

Profit = 48

C.P = profit /profit × 100

= 48/16 × 100

= 300

S.P = 300 × 116/150

= 348

Now, discount = 25%

M.P

= 348 × 100/75

= 464

Question no – (15)

Solution :

As per the question,

M.P. = 275

Discount = 32%

S.P. = 275 × 68/100

= 18700/100

= 187

Therefore, the bookseller pay Rs. 187 for a book.

Question no – (16)

Solution :

Let, C.P = x

Loss = 10%

S.P = 90x/100

Now, discount = 20%

M.P = 90x/100 × 100/80

= 90x × 100 /100 × 80

= 9x/8

Loss = 9x/8 – x

= 9x – 8x/8

= x/8

Loss% = (x/8) / x × 100

= x × 100 / 8 × x

= 12.5%

Question no – (17)

Solution :

Let S.P of fan = x

M.P of table = 480

Discount = 25%

C.P = 480 × 75/100 = 360

Now profit% = 15%

According to question,

x – 360/ 360 = 15/100

or, x – 360 = 15 × 36/10 = 54

or, x = 54 + 360

x = 414

Question no – (19)

Solution :

According to question,

S.P = 660

Profit = 10%

C.P = 660 × 100/110

= 60

Discount = 25%

M.P = 600 × 100/75

= 800

Therefore, the marked price of the item is Rs. 800

Question no – (20)

Solution :

Let, M.P. = x

Discount = 20%

S.P = 80x/100 = 4x/5

Now profit = 20%

C.P = 4x/5 × 100/120

= 4x × 100/ 5× 120

= 2x/3

Given, gain = 360

According to question,

4x/5 – 2x/3 = 360

or, 12x- 10x/15 = 360

or, 2x = 360 × 15

or, x = 360 × 15/2 = 2700 Rs

Therefore, the marked price of the cycle is Rs. 2700

Question no – (21)

Solution :

According to the question,

C.P = 1470

Profit = 10%

S.P = 1470 × 110/100

= 1617

Now, discount 12.5%

M.P = 1617 × 10 /87.5

= 1617 × 100/8750

= 1848 Rs

Thus, the marked price of a suit is Rs 1848

Question no – (22)

Solution :

Cost Price = 1200

Gain = 12%

Selling Price = 1200 × 112/100

= 1344 Rs

Now discount = 16%

M.P = 1344 × 100/84 = 1600

Therefore, Aslam should mark Rs. 1600 on a pair of shoes.

Question no – (23)

Solution :

M.P = 850

Discount = 4%

S.P = 850 × 96/100

= 816

Now, profit = 20%

C.P = 816 × 100 /120

= 680

Thus, the cost price of a shirt is Rs. 680.

Question no – (24)

Solution :

In the given question,

M.P = 1120

Discount = 10%

S.P = 1120 × 90/100

= 1008 Rs

Now, Profit = 26%

C.P = 1008 × 100/126

= 800

Therefore, the cost price for shopkeeper on pair of shoes is Rs. 800.

Question no – (25)

Solution :

In the question,

MP = 1250

Discount = 10%

S.P = 1250 × 90/100

= 1125

Now, Profit = 25%

C.P = 1125 × 100/125

= 900

Therefore, the cost price of a fan for her is Rs. 900

Profit Loss Discount and Value Added Tax (Vat) Exercise 13.3 Solution :

Question no – (1)

Solution :

Given, List Price = 9700

VAT = 6% of 9700

= 9700 × 6/100

= 582

Selling Price,

= 9700 + 582

= 10,282

Hence, to buy the refrigerator some one need to pay Rs. 10,282

Question no – (2)

Solution :

Let List Price = x

VAT = 10% of x = 10x/100

= x/10

Given, Selling Price = 825

According to question,

x + x/10 = 825

or, 10x + x/10 = 825

or, 11x = 825 × 100

or, x = 825 × 10/11 = 750

Therefore, the list price of the watch is Rs. 750

Question no – (3)

Solution :

Let, List Price = x

VAT = 7% of x = 7x/100

Given, Selling Price = 374.50

According to question,

x + 7x/100 = 374.50

or, 100x + 7x/100 = 37450/100

or, 107x = 37450

or, x = 37450/107 = 305

Therefore, the list price of the shirt is Rs. 305

Question no – (4)

Solution :

As per the given question,

List Price = 175

VAT = 7% × 188888875

= 7/100 × 175

= 49/4

Net value,

= (175 +49/4)

= 175 + 12.25

= 187.25

Therefore, the net value of the pair of shoes will be 187.25

Question no – (5)

Solution :

Let, Vat = x%

L.P = 250

VAT amount = 20

According to question,

= x/100 × 250 = 20

or, x = 20 × 100/250 = 8%

Thus, the rate of VAT will be 8%

Question no – (6)

Solution :

Dear student, solution to you question is here,

Cost Price = 5500

Discount for rebate = 5%

List Price,

= 5500 × 95/100

= 5225 Rs

Now VAT = 5% × 5225

= 5/100 × 5225

= 261.25 Rs

Net paid,

= 5225 + 261.25

= 5486.25 Rs

Thus, the amount she will have to pay for the goods is Rs. 5486.25

Question no – (7)

Solution :

Cost Price including VAT = 7150

VAT = 10%

Original Cost Price,

= 7150 × 100/110

= 6500

Thus, the original cost of the furniture is Rs. 6500.

Question no – (8)

Solution :

According to the given question,

Cost Price = 13750

VAT = 10%

Original Cost Price,

= 13750 × 100/110

= 12500

Hence, the original cost of the refrigerator is Rs. 12500.

Question no – (9)

Solution :

Cost Price including VAT = 13440

Original Cost Price = 12000

VAT amount = 13440 – 12000

= 1440

VAT% = 1440/12000 × 100

= 12%

Therefore, the rate of VAT is 12%.

Question no – (10)

Solution :

Cost Price including VAT = 2568

VAT = 7%

Original price,

= 2568 × 100/107

= 2400

Reduction cost,

= 2568 – 2400

= 168

Therefore, the reduction needed in the price of radio will be 168.

Question no – (11)

Solution :

Price of 2 pairs of shoes,

= 800 × 2

= 1600

VAT = 5%

VAT amount of 2 pairs of shoes,

= 1600 × 5/100

= 80

Price of 1 sewing machine = 1500

VAT = 6%

VAT amount of sewing machine,

= 1500 × 6/100

= 90

Price of 2 Tea sets,

= 650 × 2

= 1300

VAT = 4%

VAT amount of 2 tea sets

= 650 × 2 × 4/100

= 52

Total amount,

= [(1600 + 80) + (1500 + 90) + (1300 + 52)

= 1680 + 1590 + 1352

= 4622

Question no – (12)

Solution :

As per the given question,

Cost Price of motorcycle = 17600

VAT = 10%

Selling Price,

= 17600 × 100/110

= 16000

Therefore, the sale price of the motorcycle will be Rs 16000.

Question no – (13)

Solution :

Original Selling Price = 900

Selling Price including VAT = 990

VAT amount,

= 990 – 900

= 90

VAT% = 90 × 100/900

= 10%

Therefore, the rate of VAT charged on the coat will be 10%

Question no – (15)

Solution :

According to the question,

Selling Price including VAT = 165

VAT = 10%

Original price,

= 165 × 100/110

= 150

Therefore, the sale price of the set is Rs. 150

Question no – (16)

Solution :

Let, List Price = x

Selling Price = 660

VAT = 10%

= 10x/100

= x/10

According to question,

x + x/10 = 660

or, 10x + x/10 = 660

or, 11x = 660 × 10

or, x = 660 × 10/11

= 600 Rs

Therefore, the list price of the bicycle will be Rs. 600.

Question no – (17)

Solution :

Selling Price including VAT = 13500

VAT = 8%

Let, List Price = x

According to question,

x + 8x/100 = 13500

or, 100x + 8x/100 = 13500

or, 108x = 13500 × 100

or, x = 1350 × 10/108

= 12500

Therefore, the list price of the television will be Rs. 15,500.

Question no – (18)

Solution :

As per the given question,

Market Price = 210000

Discount = 5%

Selling Price

= 210000 × 95/100

= 199500 Rs.

Now, VAT = 10%

Required price,

= 199500 × 100/100

= 219450 Rs.

Therefore, the amount Shikha had paid for purchasing car is Rs. 219450.

Question no – (19)

Solution :

Let, Cost Price of cosmetic = x

Cost Price of purse = y

Total VAT = z

for cosmetic,

VAT = 15x/100 = 3x/20

Selling Price = x + 3x/20

= 20x + 3x/20

= 23x/20

For purse,

VAT = 10y /10 = y/10

Selling Price = y + y/10

= 10 + y/10

= 11y/10

According to question,

23x/20 = 345

or, x = 345 × 20/23 = 300

Again, According to question,

11y/10 = 110

or, y = 110 × 10/11 = 100

Total Transaction = (345 + 110)

= 455

NOW, Total price = 300 + 100 = 400

VAT = Z% of 400 = z/100 × 400 = 4z

According to question,

4x + 400 = 455

or, 4x = 455 – 400 = 55

or, 55/4 = 13.75%

Therefore, 13.75% percent is the VAT charged on the whole transaction.

Question no – (20)

Solution :

List Price = 2563

VAT = 10%

Cost Price,

= 2563 × 100/110

= 2330

Discount amount,

= 2563 – 2330

= 233

Therefore, the discount in the price of the cooler is Rs. 233

Question no – (21)

Solution :

As per the given question,

List Price = 900

Discount = 5%

Selling Price,

= 9000 × 95/100

= 8550

Now, VAT = 10%

Paid Amount.

= 8550 × 110/100

= 9405

Thus, customer pay Rs. 9405 to the dealer.

Next Chapter Solution :

Updated: June 14, 2023 — 6:07 am